Saturday, October 21, 2017

Sonderkommando Kulmhof in German Documents - Funding

Author: Hans Metzner
Mass Killing Unit of Warthegau

Sonderkommando Lange in German Documents:

Sonderkommando Kulmhof in German Documents:
Part III: Body Disposal (Appendix)
Part V: Funding


On 9 January 1942, when the killing of the Sinti and Roma of the Ghetto Litzmannstadt was completed, [1] the commandant Herbert Lange received a bar cheque for 20,000 RM from the Ghetto Administration "as special assignment for the gypsies' camp" (Document 105). The payment may have been a danger bonus for the Sonderkommando men because of typhus cases among the Sinti and Roma.

Apart from that, the extermination camp was apparently funded by the Provincial Government in Posen in this initial period of December - February 1942. The cash confiscated in Kulmhof was delivered to Posen, as shown by the transfer of a "surplus of Sonderkommando Kulmhof" of about 176,000 RM in late April 1942 from the Reich Governor's office to the Litzmannstadt Ghetto Administration, which had been "accumulated at Sonderkommando Lange and [was] partly retained here" (Document 109). The transactions of the Sonderkommando were carried out with the postal cheque account 14551 of the "Landesversicherungsanstalt Wartheland" (State Insurance Institution) (Document 159). [2] Such cover up account - possibly related to the Health Insurance Department of Landesversicherungsanstalt Wartheland - might have been a relict of camouflaging the Euthanasia operations of Sonderkommando Lange.

 The Special Account

In February 1942, a new policy was adopted how to deal with the financial matters of the extermination of the Warthegau Jews. On 5 February, two officials from the Reichs Governor met with the Litzmannstadt Ghetto Administration "to negotiate the establishment of a special account, which should centrally cover all evacuation measures of the Warthegau" (Document 106). As a result, the Ghetto Administration opened "special account 12300" at the Sparkasse Litzmannstadt in late February 1942. The account's bank statements were kept as "secret state affair" in a safe (Document 108). The available records of the special account include - amongst other things - bills, payment vouchers, payment receipts, (incomplete) monthly account summaries (APL/221/29665 - 29678) and account statements (APL/221/29664 & 29679) for 1942 - 1943.

According to a decree of the provincial government of  March 1942, "all assets such as money, foreign exchange, household goods, goods belonging to resettled Jews, go to the Ghetto Administration in Litzmannstadt" (Document 107). In turn, the Ghetto Administration had to pay for all expenses related to the extermination of the Jews - including the operation of Kulmhof extermination camp.

Income 

In the Kulmhof palace, the deported Jews had to hand over their money and valuables to the Polish prisoners, who passed on the loot to the SS Sonderkommando member Fritz Ismer. [3] The valuables were stored in zinc plated boxes and delivered to the Litzmannstadt Ghetto Administration. [4] The money received from the victims and found in their effects was collected by the bookkeeper of the SS Sonderkommando - Friedrich Neumann until April 1942 and since then Wilhelm Görlich. [5]

As the Litzmannstadt Ghetto Administration reminded other counties in April 1942, it was not permitted to take away money from the deported Jews as "collecting the cash is solely and exclusively the task of Sonderkommando Lange" (Document 107). From 27 February 1942 until 13 May 1943, the bookkeeper, [6] or in his absence another member of the SS Sonderkommando, went to Litzmannstadt 25 times with cash ranging from 36 RM to 268,400 RM to be paid on the special account of the Ghetto Administration. In one case, the head of the Ghetto Administration Hans Biebow picked up a sum of 58,300 RM directly in Kulmhof (Documents 110 - 135).

The cash deposited by the Sonderkommando at the Ghetto Administration and the "surplus of Sonderkommando Kulmhof" sent from Posen amounted to 2,660,000 RM. Another 1,140,000 RM cash was found among the confiscated property of the killed Jews in Pabianice. About 870,000 RM revenue were obtained from the "clearance sales" of the emptied ghettos. Further 1,140,000 RM were received for the special account until late April 1943 from 70% of the wages for the forced labour Jew working outside the Ghetto (0.7 RM per day per person). [7]  In total, almost 6 Million RM flowed on the special account 12300 up to the liquidation of the extermination camp.


Expenses

The cash in hand on the special account was used to fund the Kulmhof camp. Between 28 February 1942 to 31 March 1943, members of the Sonderkommando showed up 22 times in Litzmannstadt to pick up bar cheques for 10,000 - 100,000 RM (usually 50,000 RM). The cheques were received 11 times by Wilhelm Görlich, 6 times by the deputy commandant Albert Plate, each one time by Alfred Behm, Herbert Otto, Erwin Bürstinger, Friedrich Neumann and in one case the name of the recipient seems unreadable (Documents 136 - 157).

In September 1944, the obscure payments to the Sonderkommando caught the attention of a financial auditor of the Warthegau, who spot checked the books of the account. He complained about the "repeated, large payments" to the Gestapo without any payment order whatsoever and without official certification that the money was actually obtained by the Gestapo. The head of the Ghetto Administration Hans Biebow explained the auditor that the payments were made at the oral order of the Lord Major and that the Gestapo did not certify the receipt of the money using its official title "for special reasons" (Document 160). On 1 October 1944, Biebow talked to the Litzmannstadt police president Albert about the auditor's report. The conversation was tapped by Göring's security service in Litzmannstadt. Biebow remarked that "it should not be recognizable" who received the payments and that the men were from the "commandos". The Lord Major Bradfisch would "jump for joy" if he read the report. The police president argued one should just write it was a "secret state affair" (Document 161).

The total sum paid out to the Sonderkommando between February 1942 and March 1943 amounts to 1,030,000 RM (monthly breakdown in Figure 1). In the absence of any documentation of the accounting from the Sonderkommando itself, it is not entirely clear for what the money was spent in detail. Still, it is possible to infer and estimate some of the costs of the camp.

In March 1942, the Sonderkommando spent 50,000 RM, which can be considered the running costs of the extermination activity. The SS and police members received a daily extra of 10 to 15 RM as danger bonus and hush money (Document 96 here). [8] The daily benefit enabled the Sonderkommando police men Friedrich Maderholz to deposit 2800 RM on his bank account in Eichstädt (Dabie) near Kulmhof between late March 1942 and early October 1942 - corresponding to about 14 RM per day -, which was far exceeding his salary. [9] For 100 members of the Sonderkommando, about 35,000 RM of bonus had to be paid out per month. The monthly costs for leasing the motor pool, for purchasing the fuel and the food provisions can be each estimated to have been at the order of 5,000 RM. These costs already account for the Sonderkommando budget and the actual salary of the SS and police men had to be paid from their dispatching agencies (namely the Gestapo Posen, the Gestapo Litzmannstadt, the Umwandererzentralstelle and the police Litzmannstadt).

Since May 1942, an increase of the Sonderkommando budget is apparent, which is partly related to increasing transport costs to clear the effect storage sites but mostly to the body disposal activities in the forest camp. In the period July - December 1942, the Sonderkommando spent in average about 86,000 RM per month. The additional costs included the supply of resources for the forest camp, which were not obtained from the Litzmannstadt Ghetto, like the excavator, the narrow gauge railway, bricks for the incineration furnaces, gasoline and fire wood, etc. but also provisions for the enlarged working detail.


Figure 1: Monthly payments from the special account 12300 of the Litzmannstadt Ghetto Administration to Sonderkommando Kulmhof


The Ghetto Administration Litzmannstadt further paid from the special account goods delivered for the extermination camp from the Ghetto, bills submitted by the Sonderkommando and the Gestapo Posen as well as bills submitted by the Gestapo Litzmannstadt after the Kulmhof camp was liquidated in April 1943. These payments have not been systematically calculated here, but may amount to few 10,000 RM.

In summer 1944, the second period of Kulmhof extermination camp was likewise funded by the Ghetto Administration. In a conversation with an official from the Reich Governor's office on 19 May 1944, which was tapped by Göring's security service, Biebow revealed that the special account 12300 is used "to finance special commandos". [10]


Following the Money 

The major flows of money from and to the special account 12300 during the first period of Kulmhof extermination camp are summarised in Table 1. Besides funding the camp and its sorting site Pabianice, the account was used to pay deportation costs, to balance the so-called Gypsies account after the liquidation of the Sinti and Roma and to support the so called "food account" no. 700 of the Ghetto Litzmannstadt. The remaining the revenue of the extermination of the Warthegau Jews was transferred to a bank account in Posen called "Association of Friends of the Warthegau". By order of the Gauleiter Arthur Greiser, 4 Million RM were deposited on this black account on 25 February 1943 (Documents 158).

TABLE 1: Sum of the major transactions of special account 12300 in the period 27 February 1942 - 30 April 1943.

Recipient/Payer Amount
Cash from Sonderkommando Kulmhof 2,660,000 RM
Pabianice sorting camp 1,140,000 RM
Ghetto clearings 872,000 RM
foreign exchange & coins (not yet included in the previous positions) ~ 50,000 RM
Wages for forced labour Jews (balanced with 30% to food account) 1,140,000 RM
Bar cheques and cash to Sonderkommando Kulmhof -1,030,000 RM
railroad transport costs -163,000 RM
Food Account (balanced with loan of 1.1 Million RM) -350,000 RM
Gypsy's Account -122,000 RM
"Association of Friends of Warthegau" Account -4,000,000 RM

After the Kulmhof camp ceased to exist in April 1943, the special account continued to receive its 70% part of the wages for forced labour Jews outside the Ghetto. Greiser ordered the money to be sent to his black bank account once exceeding 500,000 RM. In September 1943 and March 1944, each 500,000 RM were transferred to the account of the "Association of Friends of the Warthegau" (Documents 158).

The special account 12300 was closed on 30 November 1944. [11] On 22 December 1944, Biebow stated towards the Litzmannstadt City Administration that 8.5 Million RM had been already transferred to the account "Association of Friends" (Document 162). As another 2.5 Million RM were requested from Posen, which was apparently to be paid from 2.7 Million RM on the special and the food account the month earlier, the profit from the extermination and exploitation of the Warthegau Jews transferred to Greiser's black bank account amounts to 11 Million RM. [12]


Footnotes

Archive abbreviations: APL = Archiwum Państwowe w Łodzi; AIPN = Archiwum Instytutu Pamięci Narodowej; BArch = Bundesarchiv; YVA = Yad Vashem Archives

[1] Klein, Die Ghettoverwaltung Litzmannstadt 1940 - 1944, p. 416

[2] cf. Klein, Die Gettoverwaltung Litzmannstadt 1940 - 1944, p. 486

[3] interrogation of Wilhelm Schulte of 20 December 1961, BArch B 162/3247, p.145: 'The valuables were collected in baskets from some Poles, who were working in the palace.'; interrogation of Kurt Möbius of 8 November 1961, BArch B 162/3247, p. 200: 'They had to hand over the valuables. These were collected in baskets by the Polish workers.'; interrogation of Georg Heukelbach of 30 November 1961, BArch B 162/3247, p. 218: 'There were 4 or 5 Poles who had the duty in the palace to collect the valuables from the Jews to be gassed.'; interrogation of Fritz Ismer of 9 November 1960, BArch B 162/3246, p. 73: 'Lange told me that he saw I'm faint-hearted, so I would be assigned for the sorting of valuables...the Jews had to enter the gas vans at the ramp. In the beginning this happened still dressed, but after the valuables were taken from them. This was done by the Poles, who had been detained in Fort VII in Posen. The valuables collected by them were brought to us.'; interrogation of Alois Häfele of 20 December 1960, BArch B 162/3246, p. 131: 'A Pole was assigned to the Jewish working detail, who collected the valuables and delivered them to Ismer and his staff.'; interrogation of Friedrich Maderholz of 20 July 1961, BArch B 162/3248, p. 111: 'Hüfele had 6 Poles in the palace...who were present when the Jews were undressing and collected the valuables, which there delivered to Fritz Ismer in the evening.'

[4] interrogation of Fritz Ismer of 9 November 1960, BArch B 162/3246, p. 75: 'The valuable, i.e. rings, watches, jewelry, was packed in a zinc plated containers locked with padlocks and brought to Ghetto Administration in Litzmannstadt with trucks.'

[5] interrogation of Fritz Ismer of 9 November 1960, BArch B 162/3246, p. 77: 'Neumann, Friedrich, SS-Hauptscharfüher, bookkeeper of the Sonderkommando prior Görlich'

[6] interrogation of Fritz Ismer of 9 November 1960, BArch B 162/3246, p. 75: 'The collected cash was given to the bookkeeper Görlich, who brought it with a car to the head of the ghetto Administration in Litzmannstadt Hanns Biebow.'

[7] Protocol of Ribbe of 16 June 1942 of the meeting at the Reichstatthalter on 27 May 1942, APL/221/30288, p. 128

[8] interrogation of Walter Burmeister of 23 March 1961, BArch B 162/3248, p. 75: 'In addition to our salary we received a daily bonus of 10 RM, i.e this is what I was paid, if higher ranks received more than that I don't know'; interrogation of Heinz Schattner of 1 February 1962, BArch B 162/3249, p. 125: 'During my duty in Kulmhof I received a daily special bonus of about 10 RM.'; interrogation of Josef Islinger of 26 February 1962, BArch B 162/3249, p. 158: '...we police men received a daily money bonus of about 10 RM.'; interrogation of Alois Häfele of 20 December 1960, BArch B162/3246, p. 130: 'As payment for the work the ordinary police men received 12 DM[sic] and the police captains 15 DM per day.'; interrogation of Wilhelm Schulte of 20 December 1961, BArch B162/3247, p. 149: '[Görlich] was the bookkeeper of the commando and paid us police men 100 RM special bonus every 10 days.'; interrogation of Margarete Maderholz of 26 June 1945, AIPN GK 165/271, volume 2, p. 33: 'My husband was given RM 105 and apart from that some money as hush money.'; interrogation of Friedrich Maderholz of 20 July 1961, BArch B 162/3248, p. 116: 'We police men received a special money bonus of 11 RM per day for our duty in Kulmhof, which was paid to us every 10 days from the bookkeeper of the commando.'; interrogation of Karl Heinl of 7 September 1961, BArch B 162/3248, p.131: 'In Kulmhof, we police men received a daily benefit in addition to our salary which was staggered according to the rank and amounted to 9 or 12 RM for me according to my memory.'

[9] AIPN GK 165/271, volume 4, p. 86

[10] Report of Forschungstelle A-Litzmannstadt of 20 May 1944, YVA O.51/13, p. 71

[11] letter of Biebow to Kuth of 29 November 1944, APL/221/29763, p. 70

[12] cf. Klein, Die Gettoverwaltung Litzmannstadt, p. 503f.


Contemporary German Documents


105.) Receipt of Herbert Lange of 9 January 1942:

DOCUMENT
TRANSCRIPTION
Quittung

Von der Gettoverwaltung habe ich heute einen Barscheck Nr. 197551 auf die Stadtsparkasse Litzmannstadt in Höhe von

RM 20.000,-- (Zwanzigtausend)

erhalten, als Sonderzuweisung für das Zigeunerlager.

Litzmannstadt, den 9. 1. 1942

[Unterschrift]
SS-Hauptscharführer
Kriminal-Kommissar
Sonderkommando
der Staatspolizeileitstelle Posen
TRANSLATION
Receipt

Today, I have received from the ghetto administration a bar cheque no. 197551 of the Stadtsparkasse Litzmannstadt with the amount of

RM 20,000  (Twentythousand)

as special assignment for the gypsies' camp.

Litzmannstadt, 9 January 1942

[signature]
SS-Hauptscharführer
Kriminal-Kommissar
Sonderkommando
of State Police Main Office
(Pawlicka-Nowak, Swiadectwa Zaglady, photograph 4, citing AZIH 205/9, p.8)


106.) Memo of Friedrich Ribbe of 5 February 1942:

DOCUMENT
TRANSCRIPTION
027/2/Ri/Po                 Litzmannstadt, den 5.2.1942

Aktennotiz!

Betr.: Besprechung mit Herrn Oberreg.Rat Dr.Häusler und Herrn Ob.Reg.Rat. Dr. Windmüller, von Posen.

Beide Herren erschienen im Auftrag von Herrn Oberführer Mehlhorn, um sich einen Überblick über die Finanzlage des Gettos zu verschaffen. Sie versuchten Verhandlungen zu führen über die Aufstellung eines Sonderkontos, aus welchem Zentral alle Evakuierungsmaßnahmen des Warthegaues gedeckt werden sollen. Ich habe erklärt, daß derartige abschließende Verhandlungen zweckmäßig in Posen nach der Rückkunft von Herrn Biebow fortgesetzt werden.

[...]
TRANSLATION
027/2/Ri/Po                 Litzmannstadt, 5 February 1942

Memo!

Subject: Meeting with Mr. Oberreg.Rat Dr.Häusler and Mr. Herrn Ob.Reg.Rat. Dr. Windmüller, from Posen.

Both gentlemen appeared on behalf of Mr. Oberführer Mehlhorn to get an overview of the financial situation of the ghetto. They tried to negotiate the establishment of a special account, which should centrally cover all evacuation measures of the Warthegau. I explained that the final negotiations will be continued in Posen after Mr. Biebow's return. 

[...]
(APL/221/29232, p.212)


107.) Letter of Hans Biebow of 20 April 1942:

DOCUMENT

TRANSCRIPTION
Der Oberbürgermeister von Litzmannstadt
Getto-Verwaltung
Moltkestrasse 211

Bankverbindung
Stadtsparkasse Litzmannstadt
Konto 700

Fernruf: 251·-72

...
Unsere Zeichen                                               den 20.4.1942
027/2/Ri/Po                                            

Betr.: Umsiedlung von Juden.


Nach dem Erlass vom 23.3.1942 des Herrn Reichsstatthalters, fallen sämtliche Vermögenswerte wie Geld, Devisen, Hausrat, Waren, die Eigentum umgesiedelter Juden sind, an die Gettoverwaltung in Litzmannstadt.

[...]

Was nach Umsiedlung der Juden unverzüglich und in vollem Umfange zur alleinigen Verfügung der Gettoverwaltung sichergestellt werde muß, ist folgendes:

1.) Maschinen aller Art...

2.) Deutsche Reichsmark

3.) Devisen bezw. ausländische Zahlungsmittel

4.) geprägte Gold-, Silber- und sonstige Münzen aller Art

5.) Edelsteine

6.) Textilien, Leder und sonstige Rohmaterialien aller Art.

[...]

Der Hausrat ist zweckmäßig in Form von Versteigerungen oder freien Verkäufen zu verwerten und der Erlös unter Abzug reiner Verkaufsunkosten an die Gettoverwaltung abzuführen.
Es wird hiermit ausdrücklich darauf hingewiesen, dass es keinesfalls statthaft ist, von Juden vor der Umsiedlung noch irgendwelche Bargeldbeträge oder Forderungen einzutreiben. Die Sicherstellung von Barbeträgen ist ausschliesslich und allein Aufgabe des Sonderkommandos Lange, während Forderungen den Juden gegenüber der Gettoverwaltung, Litzmannstadt, zu melden sind, die nach Prüfung der Berechtigung über die Begleichung entscheidet.

[Unterschrift]
(Biebow)
Amtsleiter
TRANSLATION
The Oberbürgermeister of Litzmannstadt
Ghetto Administration
Moltke street 211

Bank details
Stadtsparkasse Litzmannstadt
Account 700

Phone: 251·-72

                
 
Our reference                                         20 April 1942
027/2/Ri/Po      

Subject.: Resettlement of the Jews

According to the decree of 23 March 1942 of Mr. Reichsstatthalters, all assets such as money, foreign exchange, household goods, goods belonging to resettled Jews, go to the Ghetto Administration in Litzmannstadt.

The following is to be seized immediately after the resettlement of the Jews to the full disposal of the Ghetto Administration

1.) Machines of all kinds ...
2.) German Reichsmark
3.) Foreign exchange, foreign payment
4.) Coined gold, silver and other coins of all kinds
5.) Jewelry
6.) Textiles, leather and other raw materials of all kinds.

[...]

The household effects should be sold in the form of auctions or free sales, and the revenue shall paid to the Ghetto Administration after subtracting the pure selling expenses.

It is hereby emphasised that it is by no means allowed to collect any cash or claims of Jews before the resettlement. Collecting the cash is solely and exclusively the task of Sonderkommando Lange, while demands towards the Jews are to be reported to the Ghetto Admnistration Litzmannstadt, which decides on the settlement after examining its correctness. 

[signature]
(Biebow)
Head of the Office
(APL/221/31248, p. 236 f., cf. Dokumenty i materiały, tom 2, p. 118-119)


108.) Hans Biebow to Otto Luchterhandt of 27 April 1942:

DOCUMENT
TRANSCRIPTION
027/1/B/Ri                             Litzmannstadt, den 27.4.42

Herrn Luchterhandt!

Anbei empfangen Sie die Durchschläge vom Konto-Auszug des Sonderkontos 12300. Ich bitte, diese der Akte "Geheime Reichssache" hinzuzufügen und die Akte selbst im Geldschrank aufzubewahren.

gez. Biebow
Amtsleiter.

Anlagen
TRANSLATION
027/1/B/Ri                             Litzmannstadt, 27.4.42

Mr. Luchterhandt!

Enclosed you receive the copies of the bank statements of the special account 12300. I ask you to add this to the file "Secret State Affair" and keep the file in the safe.

signed Biebow
Head of the Office.

Enclosures
(APL/221/29444, p.386)




109.) Letter from the Reichsstatthalter Warthegau to the Litzmannstadt Ghetto  Administration of 28 April 1942:

 DOCUMENT
TRANSCRIPTION
Der Reichsstatthalter im Warthegau                       Posen, den 28. April 1942
                                                                                Felix-Dahn-Platz
                                                                                Fernsprecher Nr. 65-41

1/13
A.Z.: 022/150
Bei Antwortschreiben sind Gegenstand 
und Geschäftszeichen anzugeben.

An die Ghettoverwaltung in Litzmannstadt
zu Händen des Leiters Herrn Biebow
Moltkestrasse 157

Betrifft: Evakuierungsaktion, Überschüsse des Sonderkommandos Kulmhof

Ich habe veranlasst, dass die beim Sonderkommando Lange angefallenen und zum Teil hier zurückbehaltenen Beträge in Höhe von RM 176.094,35 auf das Sonderkonto Nr. 12300 bei der Stadtsparkasse in Litzmannstadt überwiesen werden.

Im Auftrag

[Unterschrift]
TRANSLATION
The Reichsstatthalter in the Warthegau                       Posen, 28 April 1942
                                                                                     Felix-Dahn-Platz
                                                                                     Phone no. 65-41

1/13
File number.: 022/150
In the case of reply letters the subject matter and reference number are to be given.

To the Ghetto Administration in Litzmannstadt
to the hands of the head Mr. Biebow
Moltkestrasse 157

Subject: Evacuation action, surpluses of the Sonderkommando Kulmhof

I have prompted that the amounts accumulated at the Sonderkommando Lange and partly retained here amounting to RM 176,094.35 are transferred to the special account no. 12300 at the Stadtsparkasse in Litzmannstadt.

By order:
[signature]
(APL/221/29665, p.151)


110 - 135.) Money transfer from Sonderkommando Kulmhof to Special Account 12300 of the Litzmannstadt Ghetto Administration:

TABLE 1

Doc. Date Depositor Amount Source Image
110 27/02/42 Gestapo (S) 139,292 RM APL/221/29665, p.248
111 11/03/42 Gestapo (S) 214,022 RM APL/221/29665, p.225
112 28/03/42 Gestapo (S) 183,816 RM APL/221/29665, p.202
113 03/04/42 Gestapo
(Sonderkommando)
76,600 RM APL/221/29665, p.193
114 15/04/42 Gestapo (S) 97,800 RM APL/221/29665, p.178
115 17/04/42 Gestapo (S) 146,600 RM APL/221/29665, p.172
116 28/04/42 Sonderkommando
Kulmhof/Lange
via Posen
176,094 RM APL/221/29665, p.151
117 30/04/42 Gestapo (S) 192,000 RM APL/221/29665, p.154
118 07/05/42 Gestapo (S)
in Kulmhof
58,300 RM APL/221/29665, p.100
119 13/05/42 Gestapo (S) 48,800 RM APL/221/29665, p.94
120 28/05/42 Gestapo (S) 69,930 RM APL/221/29665, p.51
121 03/06/42 Gestapo (S) 32,489 RM APL/221/29666, p.213
122 23/06/42 Gestapo (S) 37,726 RM APL/221/29666, p.23
123 06/08/42 Gestapo (S) 131,700 RM APL/221/29668, p.249
124 11/08/42 Sonderkommando 8,402 RM APL/221/29668, p.118
125 15/08/42 Gestapo (S) 162,000 RM APL/221/29668, p.110
126 22/08/42 Gestapo (S) 268,400 RM APL/221/29669, p.154
127 29/08/42 Gestapo
(Sonderkommando)
Görlich
149,600 RM APL/221/29669,
p.168-169
128 03/09/42 Gestapo (S)
Görlich
156,200 RM APL/221/29669,
p.82-83

129 05/09/42 Gestapo (S) 170,700 RM APL/221/29669 p.86
130 18/09/42 Gestapo (S) 28,155 RM APL/221/29670 p.136
131 28/10/42 Gestapo (S) 16,342 RM APL/221/29672 p.22
132 12/11/42 Gestapo (S) 68,023 RM APL/221/29672 p.130
133 11/03/43 Sonderkommando
Kulmhof
Görlich
4,203 RM APL/221/29675 p.55
134 09/04/43 Sonderkommando
Kulmhof
36 RM APL/221/29675, p.195
135 13/05/43 Sonderkommando
Kulmhof
3,226 RM APL/221/29676, p.352


EXAMPLE OF TRANSCRIPTION, TRANSLATION AND SUPPLEMENTARY DOCUMENTATION

Receipt of 27 February 1942 and corresponding daily and monthly bank statements of special account 12300:

DOCUMENTS

TRANSCRIPTION
027/1/Lu/R

Die Gettoverwaltung hat heute von der Geheimen Staatspolizei (S) unter Vorbehalt der Richtigkeit, also ungezählt, erstmalig übernommen: 

139.292,50 Reichsmark
260 U.S.A.-Dollar, Papier
4 Kanada-Dollar, Papier
19 engl. Pfund
20 Frank
60 U.S.A.-Dollar, in Gold
10 Rubel in Gold
59.- Reichsmark in Kreditkassenscheinen.

Litzmannstadt, den 27.2.1942.       

Im Auftrage:
[Unterschrift] 
Bezeichnungen                  Umsätze                           Neuer Saldo                Konto Nr.
Datum        [...]       Soll                  Haben                Soll      Haben

3 MRZ 42  [...]                                139.351.50                    89.351,50          12300
Der Oberbürgermeister
Gettoverwaltung

027/1/Lu/Po

Kontoauszug per 31.3.1942
Sonderkonto 12300
                                                                             Soll                    Haben
Februar 24. Einzahlung Stapo 3.Transport          5 000,-
              25. Einzahlung Stapo 4.Transport          5 000,-
              25. Gefahrenzulage für Stapobeamte
                    (Gettozulage)                                                            4 800,-
              26. Einzahlung Stapo 5.Transport          5 000,-
              27. Einzahlung Stapo 6.Transport          5 000,-
              27. Einzahlung Sonderkommando     139 351,50
              27. Erlös aus Devisenverkauf                    716,25
              28. Zahlung an Gettoverw. Rechn.
                    8297                                                                             472,50
              28. Zahlung an Gettoverw. Rechn.
                    8409                                                                              154,40
              28. Zahlung an Sonderkommando                                 50 000,-

[...]

[März]   12. Einzahlung Sonderkommando      214 022,87

[...]
              28. Zahlung an Sonderkommando                                   50 000,-
              31. Einzahlung Sonderkommando      183 816,- 

                                                                           557 906,62         557 906,62


Außerdem wurden vom Sonderkommando an ausländischen Zahlungsmitteln übergeben:

Februar 27.      260 USA-Dollar Papier
                          20  Ffr.
                          60 USA-Dollar Gold
                          10 Rubel Gold
                            4 Kanada-Dollar
                           19 Englische Pfund

Abrechnung hierüber erfolgte am 27.2 - in vorstehendem Auszug unter Pos. 6 aufgeführt, mit RM 716,25.

[...]

Litzmannstadt, den 15.4.1942
[Unterschrift]
TRANSLATION
027/1/Lu/R

The ghetto administration has received under reserve, without recounting, from the Secret State Police (S):

139,292.50 Reichsmark
260 U.S. dollars, paper
4 Canada dollars, paper
19 British pounds
20 Frank
60 U.S. dollars, in gold
10 rubles in gold
59.- Reichsmark in credit bank notes.

Litzmannstadt, 27.2.1942.

On behalf of:
[Signature]
description                  transactions                          new balance                account no.
date           [...]         debit                credit                 debit       credit

3 March 42  [...]                          139.351.50                      89.351,50          12300
The Lord Mayor
ghetto administration

027/1 / Lu / Po

Account statement as of 31.3.1942

Special account 12300

                                                                                    Debit                  Credit

February 24. Deposit State Police 3rd transport         5,000
                25. Deposit State Police 4th transport         5,000
                25. Danger bonus for State Police                                       4,800
                       (Ghetto bonus)
                  26. Deposit State Police 5th transport       5,000
                  27. Deposit State Police 6th transport       5,000
                  27. Deposit Sonderkommando               139,351.50
                  27. Revenue from foreign exchange sales    716.25
                  28. Payment to ghetto admn. bill  8297                               472.50
                  28. Payment to ghetto admn. bill  8409                               154.40
                  28. Payment to Sonderkommando                                   50,000



[...]

[March]    12. Deposit Sonderkommando              214,022.87

[...]
                 28. Payment to Sonderkommando                                  50,000

                 31. Deposit Sonderkommando              183,816
[...]

                                                                               557 906.62          557 906.62



In addition, foreign currencies were handed over by the Sonderkommando:

    February 27.  260 USA dollar paper
                             20 Ffr.
                             60 US dollar gold
                             10 rubles gold
                               4 Canada dollars
                             19 British pounds

Settlement was made on 27.2 - in the above extract item 6 - with RM 716.25.

[...]


Litzmannstadt, 15.4.1942
[signature]
(APL/221/29665, p.248, APL/221/29664, p.7, APL/221/29665, p.195-196)


136. - 158.) Money transfer from Litzmannstadt Ghetto Administration to Sonderkommando Kulmhof:

TABLE 3

Doc. Date Recipient Amount Source Image
136 28/02/42 Alfred Behm 50,000 RM APL/221/29665, p.240
137 28/03/42 Friedrich Neumann 50,000 RM APL/221/29665, p.204
138 15/04/42 Wilhelm Görlich 50,000 RM APL/221/29665, p.181
139 01/05/42 Herbert Otto
Kulmhof
30,000 RM APL/221/29665, p.148
140 14/05/42 Wilhelm Görlich 30,000 RM APL/221/29665, p.60
141 28/05/42 Wilhelm Görlich 30,000 RM APL/221/29665, p.58
142 16/06/42 Wilhelm Görlich 50,000 RM APL/221/29666, p.111
143 04/07/42 Albert Plate 10,000 RM APL/221/29667, p.233
144 21/07/42 Albert Plate 20,000 RM APL/221/29667, p.7
145 27/07/42 Albert Plate 50,000 RM APL/221/29669, p.277
146 07/08/42 Erwin Bürstinger 50,000 RM APL/221/29669, p.253

147 29/08/42 Albert Plate 50,000 RM APL/221/29669, p.265
148 18/09/42 Wilhelm Görlich 50,000 RM APL/221/29670, p.139
149 29/09/42 Wilhelm Görlich 70,000 RM APL/221/29670, p.73
150 28/10/42 Wilhelm Görlich 70,000 RM APL/221/29672, p.8
151 12/11/42 Wilhelm Görlich 50,000 RM APL/221/29672, p.114
152 30/11/42 Wilhelm Görlich 100,000 RM APL/221/29672, p.247
153 21/01/43 Gestapo (S) 50,000 RM APL/221/29674, p.357
154 01/02/43 Wilhelm Görlich 50,000 RM APL/221/29674, p.357
155 20/02/43 Albert Plate 50,000 RM APL/221/29674, p.51
156 11/03/43 Wilhelm Görlich 50,000 RM APL/221/29675, p.57
157 31/03/43 Albert Plate 20,000 RM APL/221/29675, p.169

EXAMPLE OF TRANSCRIPTION, TRANSLATION AND SUPPLEMENTARY DOCUMENTATION

Receipt of 28 February 1942 and corresponding daily and monthly bank statement of special account 12300:

DOCUMENTS
TRANSCRIPTION
Ich bestätige, heute von der Gettoverwaltung für die Geheime Staatspolizei (S)

RM 50 000.- (in Worten: Fünfzigtausend)

erhalten zu haben.

Litzmannstadt, den 28.2.1942

[Unterschrift]
Bezeichnungen                  Umsätze                                 Neuer Saldo            Konto Nr.
Datum                    [...]       Soll                  Haben           Soll           Haben

28 Feb 42 Scheck [....]        50.0000,00                            50.000,00               12300

Scheck # 2563 ??
Sonderkommando
Quittung v. 28.2.42 Beleg # 18
Der Oberbürgermeister
Gettoverwaltung
027/1/Lu/Po

Kontoauszug per 31.3.1942
Sonderkonto 12300
                                                                             Soll                    Haben
Februar 24. Einzahlung Stapo 3.Transport          5 000,-
              25. Einzahlung Stapo 4.Transport          5 000,-
              25. Gefahrenzulage für Stapobeamte
                    (Gettozulage)                                                            4 800,-
              26. Einzahlung Stapo 5.Transport          5 000,-
              27. Einzahlung Stapo 6.Transport          5 000,-
              27. Einzahlung Sonderkommando     139 351,50
              27. Erlös aus Devisenverkauf                    716,25
              28. Zahlung an Gettoverw. Rechn.
                    8297                                                                             472,50
              28. Zahlung an Gettoverw. Rechn.
                    8409                                                                              154,40
              28. Zahlung an Sonderkommando                                 50 000,-

[...]
TRANSLATION
I confirm to have received
RM 50,000 (in words: Fiftythousand)

today from the Ghetto Administration for the Secret State Police (S)


Litzmannstadt, 28.2.1942

[signature]
description              transactions                       new balance                      account no.
Datum                    [...]       debit         credit        debit         credit    

28 Feb 42 cheque [....]        50.0000,00              50.000,00                           12300

cheque # 2563 ??
Sonderkommando
voucher of 28.2.42 receipt # 18
The Lord Mayor
ghetto administration

027/1 / Lu / Po

Account statement as of 31.3.1942

Special account 12300

                                                                                    Debit                  Credit

February 24. Deposit State Police 3rd transport         5,000
                25. Deposit State Police 4th transport         5,000
                25. Danger bonus for State Police                                       4,800
                       (Ghetto bonus)
                  26. Deposit State Police 5th transport       5,000
                  27. Deposit State Police 6th transport       5,000
                  27. Deposit Sonderkommando               139,351.50
                  27. Revenue from foreign exchange sales    716.25
                  28. Payment to ghetto admn. bill  8297                               472.50
                  28. Payment to ghetto admn. bill  8409                               154.40
                  28. Payment to Sonderkommando                                   50,000

[...]
 (APL/221/29665, p.240, APL/221/29664, p.6, APL/221/29665, p.195)


158.) Money transfer from Special Account 12300 of the Litzmannstadt Ghetto Administration to the Verein der Freunde des Warthegaus in Posen:

TABLE 4

No. Date Recipient Amount Source Image
1 25/02/43 Verein der Freunde
des Warthegaues
4,000,000 RM APL/221/29674 p.31
2 04/09/43 Verein der Freunde
des Warthegaues
500,000 RM APL/221/29678 p.48
3 09/03/44 Verein der Freunde
des Warthegaues
500,000 RM APL/221/29807, p.137


159.) Letter of the Reichstraßenbauamt Hohensalza to the Litzmannstadt Ghetto Adminisration of Arthur Greiser of 2 July 1943:

DOCUMENT
TRANSCRIPTION
Reichs-Straßenbauamt                                     Hohensalza, den 2.7.1943
Hohensalza                                                       Moltkestr. 13
Fernsprecher 2141
Akt.-Z.: V-1493-1034


An den Herrn Oberbürgermeister, Getto-Verwaltung
Litzmannstadt

Betr.: Lieferung von Dieselöl pp. durch das SS-Sonderkommando Kulmhof.
Bezug: Schreiben vom 29.6.43-027/3/Ku/Nr. -

Der Betrag von 8 144,40 RM ist bereits unterm 15.6.43 durch die Regierungsoberkasse Hohensalza zur Zahlung gekommen und zwar für das SS Sonderkommando an die Landesversicherungsanstalt Wartheland in Posen auf das Postscheckkonto Breslau 14551.

[Unterschrift]
TRANSLATION
Reichs-Straßenbauamt                                     Hohensalza, 2.7.1943
Hohensalza                                                       Moltkestr. 13
Phone 2141
File no.: V-1493-1034


To Mr. Lord Major, Ghetto Administration Litzmannstadt

Subject.: Delivery of Diesel oil etc. by the SS-Sonderkommando Kulmhof
Reference: Letter of 29.6.43-027/3/Ku/Nr. -

The amount of 8,144.40 RM has already been paid by the Government Account Hohensalza on 15.6.43, namely for the SS Sonderkommando to the state insurance institution Wartheland in Posen on the postal cheque account Breslau 14551.

[signature]
(APL/221/29677, p. 83)


160.) Letter of Gähle to the Reichs Governor of 9 September 1944

DOCUMENT
TRANSCRIPTION
[...]

6.) Buchungen und Belege wurden stichprobenartig durchgesehen. Dabei ist aufgefallen, daß über die wiederholten namhaften Zahlungen an die Geheime Staatspolizei (in der Regel 50.000.- RM je Zahlung) der Gettoverwaltung keine Ausgabeanweisung erteilt worden ist. Als Buchungsbelege wurden lediglich Quittungen verwendet. Diese Quittungn sind aber nicht von der Empfängerin - der Geheimen Staatspolizei - unterschrieben, sondern nur mit einem Namen (z.B. "Förster") ohne Dienstbezeichnung und ohne daß erkennbar ist, daß der Empfänger des bar ausgezahlten Betrages für die Geheime Staatspolizei quittiert.

Hierzu erklärt der Amtsleiter Biebow, daß die Zahlungen auf telefonische Anweisung des Oberbürgermeisters vorgenommen seien und daß die Geheime Staatspolizei aus besonderen Gründen nicht mit ihrer Dienststellenbezeichnung quittiere.

[...]
TRANSLATION
[...]

6.) Bookings and receipts were checked by sampling. It is noticed that no payment orders were given to the Ghetto Administration for repeated, large payments to the   Secret State Police (usually 50,000.- RM per payment). Only receipts were used as posting documents. These receipts, however, are not signed by the recipient - the Secret State Police, but only with a name (for example, "Förster") without official title and without being recognizable that the receiver of the cash accepted the receipts for the Secret State Police.

Biebow, the head of the office, explained that the payments were made at the order of the Lord Mayor by phone, and that the Secret State Police did not accept the receipts with their office title for special reasons.

[...]
(APL/221/29764, p. 39)


161.) Report of Forschungsstelle A-Litzmannstadt of 2 October 1944

DOCUMENT


TRANSCRIPTION
Id./Mü                 2. Oktober 1944

NL 10308

Verwaltungsstelle Getto, Litzmannstadt

Unterhaltung Polizeipräsident
Dr. Albert - Biebow

Biebow über einen Bericht zur Rechnungsführung der Gettoverwaltung

[...]

Der Bericht selbst, so führt Biebow dann aus, sei ja auch ein starkes Stück. Er werde die Sache am 2.10 dem Obersturmführer (FA: Dr. Bradfisch) vorlegen. Es heisse da:

"Buchungen und Belege wurden stichprobenweise durchgesehen. Dabei ist aufgefallen, dass über die wiederholten namenhaften Zahlungen an die Geheime Staatspolizei - in der Regel je 50 000 RM - die Gettoverwaltung keine Auszahlungsanweisungen erteilt wurden. Als Buchungsbelege wurden lediglich Quittungen verwendet. Diese Quittungen sind aber nicht von der Empfängerin - Gestapo - unterschrieben, sondern mit dem Namen Farka (?), ohne dass es erkenntlich ist (Biebow macht den Einwurf, es solle nämlich nicht erkenntlich sein), dass der Empfänger für die bar ausgezahlten Beträge an die Stapo quittierte. Hierzu erklärte der Amtsleiter Biebow, dass die Zahlungen auf telefonische Anweisung des Oberbürgermeisters vorgenommen seien und die Gestapo aus besonderen Gründen nicht mit ihrer Dienststelle-Bezeichnung quittierte."

Biebow fügt hier erklärend hinzu, es handele sich dabei um die Kommandos. Dr. Albert meint, er würde einfach 'Geheime Reichssache' schreiben. Biebow äussert, wenn das der Chef (FA: gemeint ist Dr. Bradfisch) lese, werde er sich 'überschlagen'. Er (Biebow) arbeite jetzt einen Gegenbericht aus. Im Grunde genommen sei alles sonnenklar an der Geschichte.

[...]
TRANSLATION
Id./Mü                 2 October 1944

NL 10308

Ghetto Administration, Litzmannstadt

Conversation police president
Dr. Albert - Biebow

Biebow on a report on the accounting of the Ghetto Administration

[...]

According to Biebow, the report is pretty steep. He will submit the case on 2 October to the Obersturmführer (FA: Dr. Bradfisch). It reads:

"Bookings and receipts were checked by sampling. It is noticed that no payment orders were given to the Ghetto Administration for repeated, large payments - usually 50,000.- RM per payment - to the Secret State Police. Only receipts were used as posting documents. These receipts, however, are not signed by the recipient - the Secret State Police, but only with the name Farka (?) without being recognizable (Biebow objects it should not be recognizable) that the receiver of the cash accepted the receipts for the Stapo. Biebow, the head of the office, explained that the payments were made at the order of the Lord Mayor by phone, and that the Secret State Police did not accept the receipts with their office title for special reasons."

Biebow adds that these are the commandos. Dr. Albert thinks one should just write 'Secret State Affair'. Biebow says if the boss (FA: Dr. Bradfisch is meant) reads this, he would 'jump for joy'. He (Biebow) is now working out a counter-report. Basically, everything is crystal clear with this affair.
(YVA O.51/13, p. 197- 199)


162.) Report of Forschungsstelle A-Litzmannstadt of 23 December 1944

DOCUMENT
 

TRANSCRIPTION
Id./Mü                                     23. Dezember 1944

NL 10768

Verwaltungsstelle Getto, Litzmannstadt

Über die Höhe des derzeitigen Guthabens der Gettoverwaltung

1?.12       Giersemehl von der Stadtverwaltung in Litzmannstadt unterrichtet am 22.12. Biebow von einer Anweisug über Dr. Trautweins, 2,5 Millionen RM auf das Konto des 'Vereins der Freunde' zu überweisen. Dr. Trautwein, so bemerkt Giersemehl, habe allerdings Befürchtungen, dass sich die Gettoverwaltung dadurch aller Barmittel entblössen würde, Biebow erklärt, die Überweisung bereits gar keine Schwierigkeit. Schätzungsweise belaufe sich der Bestand auf 3,5 bis 4 Millionen RM, so dass man nach der Überweisung immer noch flüssig bleiben werde. Ausserdem habe man noch 1 Million RM Außenstände. Auf eine entsprechende Frage Giersemehls teilt Biebow noch mit, bisher habe man insgesamt 8,5 Millionen RM auf das Konto überweisen.

[...]
TRANSLATION
Id./Mü                                     23 Dezember 1944

NL 10768

Ghetto Administration, Litzmannstadt

On the amount of the current credit of the Ghetto Administration

1?.12       Giersemehl from the city administration in Litzmannstadt informs Biebow about an order from Dr. Trautwein to transfer 2.5 Million RM to the account 'Association of the Friends'. According to Giersemehl, Dr. Trautwein fears that the ghetto administration would thereby lose all cash. Biebow declares that the transfer is no difficulty. It is estimated that the reserves amount to 3.5 to 4 million RM, so that one would still remain liquid after the transfer. In addition, one has 1 million RM outstanding debts. On Giersemehl's question, Biebow states that they have already paid a total of 8.5 million RM to the account.

[...]
(YVA O.51/13, p. 136)

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